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Assessment Results




© 2017 Tom Charlton (1 of 35 )

AmphibiaWeb species account




IUCN Red List assessment


Conservation Needs Assessment

Megophrys nasuta ,   Malayan Horned Frog, Large Horned Frog
Assessed for:  Singapore   on: 02 Nov 2011   by: AArk/ASG Assessment Workshop  
Assessment Status: Completed  
Order:   Anura     Family:   Megophryidae

IUCN Global Red List:   Least Concern (LC)   
IUCN National Red List:   Endangered (EN)   
Distribution:     Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand  
Evolutionary Distinctiveness score:   18.9666318036587 
Recommended Conservation Actions:   Rescue  , In Situ Research  , Conservation Education  , Biobanking   
Additional Comments:   Ming suggests that there might be a need for in situ research to find out where the females are as they are not often encountered in the wild. 

Question #Short NameQuestion TextResponseComments
1 Extinction risk Current IUCN Red List category. [Data obtained from the IUCN Red List.] Endangered (EN) Listed as Least Concern in the global Red List, but is listed as Endangered in latest National Red List.
2 Possibly extinct Is there a strong possibility that this species might be extinct in the wild? No
3 Phylogenetic significance The taxon’s Evolutionary Distinctiveness (ED) score, as generated by the ZSL EDGE program. (These data are added by AArk staff, and are not editable by Assessors). ED value < 20
4 Protected habitat Is a population of at least 50% of the individuals of the taxon included within a reliably protected area or areas? Yes Not effectively protected at this stage, we don't know if it would be possible to rehabilitate streams (D. Bickford, pers. comm. Oct. 2011). Ming agrees that we don't know enough and would need to provide several substantial pumps to rehabilitate the streams.
5 Habitat for reintroduction Does enough suitable habitat exist, either within or outside of currently protected areas that is suitable for reintroduction or translocation? No Species occurs in protected habitat (Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Nee Soon Swamp Forest), but perhaps none of the reserves in Singapore are large enough to mitigate against climate change. Habitat for reintroduction is limited as there maybe good places but the streams may be too short, too shallow (Tzi Ming Leong, pers. comm.). D. Bickford agrees that the stream habitat will be the limiting factor, so habitat is potentially available.
6 Previous reintroductions Have reintroduction or translocation attempts been made in the past for this species? No
7 Threat mitigation Are the threats facing the taxon, including any new and emerging threats not considered in the IUCN Red List, potentially reversible? Threats cannot/will not be reversed in time Further discussion with David Bickford and Daniel Ng determined that the threats are irreversible or potentially irreversible and if we do not do anything then it will become extinct.
8 Over-collection from the wild Is the taxon suffering from unsustainable collection within its natural range, either for food, for the pet trade or for any other reason, which threatens the species’ continued persistence in the wild? No
9 Population recovery Is the known population of this species in the wild large enough to recover naturally, without ex situ intervention if threats are mitigated? Unknown Minimum population needed to ensure survival is unknown - they have been declining in Singapore. Possibly only 50 individuals left in Singapore, David feels that there are less than 100 - so it is unknown if sufficient individuals exist for the population to recover.
10 Biological distinctiveness Does the taxon exhibit, for example, a distinctive reproductive mode, behaviour, aspect of morphology or physiology, within the Class Amphibia? No aspect of biology known to be exceptional Noted that tadpoles have an unusual way of feeding. Species has high dependency on stream health and longevity - it is dependent on good streams therefore a good indicator of climate change and health of environment. It would be important to know what parts of the streams it would use.
11 Cultural/socio-economic importance Does the taxon have a special human cultural value (e.g. as a national or regional symbol, in a historic context, featuring in traditional stories) or economic value (e.g. food, traditional medicine, tourism) within its natural range or in a wider global context? No
12 Scientific importance Is the species vital to current or planned research other than species-specific ecology/biology/conservation? (e.g. human medicine, climate change, environmental pollutants and conservation science), within the Class Amphibia? No research dependent on this species
13 Ex situ research Does conserving this species (or closely related species) in situ depend upon research that can be most easily carried out ex situ? Yes
14 Husbandry analog Do the biological and ecological attributes of this species make it suitable for developing husbandry regimes for more threatened related species? i.e. could this species be used in captivity to help to develop husbandry and breeding protocols which could be used for a similar, but more endangered species at a later stage? No
15 Captive breeding Has this species been successfully maintained and bred in captivity? Yes, bred to F1 Has been bred in captivity privately and in Hong Kong (Brad Wilson, pers. comm. Oct. 2011).
16 Educational potential Is the species especially diurnal/active/colourful and therefore suited to be an educational ambassador for conservation of this group of species? Yes
17 Mandate Is there an existing conservation mandate recommending the ex situ conservation of this taxon? No
18 Range State approval Would a proposed ex situ initiative for this species be supported (and approved) by the range State (either within the range State or out-of-country ex situ)? No National Parks Board could be convinced to allow collection if the conditions of the captive institution met their approval. Noted that females are quite scarce. David doesn't feel National Parks Board would ever give permission to take 40 individuals from the wild. A person from National Parks Board said that only if the wild population was big enough to sustain taking 40 from the wild would they agree.
19 Founder specimens Are sufficient animals of the taxon available or potentially available (from wild or captive sources) to initiate the specified ex situ program? No Research into availability of founders needs to be prioritised.
20 Taxonomic status Has a complete taxonomic analysis of the species in the wild been carried out, to fully understand the functional unit you wish to conserve (i.e. have species limits been determined)? No Research into species validity needs to be prioritised.

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