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Assessment Results




© 2019 Tom Charlton (1 of 39 )

AmphibiaWeb species account




IUCN Red List assessment


Conservation Needs Assessment

Megophrys nasuta ,   Malayan Horned Frog, Large Horned Frog
Assessed for:  Singapore   on: 02 Nov 2011   by: AArk/ASG Assessment Workshop  
Assessment Status: Completed  
Order:   Anura     Family:   Megophryidae

IUCN Global Red List:   Least Concern (LC)   
IUCN National Red List:   Endangered (EN)   
Distribution:     Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand  
Evolutionary Distinctiveness score:   16.62351208 
Recommended Conservation Actions:   Rescue  , In Situ Conservation  , In Situ Research  , Conservation Education  , Biobanking   
Additional Comments:   Ming suggests that there might be a need for in situ research to find out where the females are as they are not often encountered in the wild. 

Question #Short NameQuestion TextResponseComments
1 Extinction risk Current IUCN Red List category. [Data obtained from the IUCN Red List.] Endangered (EN) Listed as Least Concern in the global Red List, but is listed as Endangered in latest National Red List.
2 Possibly extinct Is there a strong possibility that this species might be extinct in the wild? No
3 Phylogenetic significance The taxon’s Evolutionary Distinctiveness (ED) score, as generated by the ZSL EDGE program. (These data are not editable by Assessors). Unknown
4 Protected habitat Is a population of at least 50% of the individuals of the taxon included within a well-managed or reliably protected area or areas? Yes / probably Not effectively protected at this stage, we don't know if it would be possible to rehabilitate streams (D. Bickford, pers. comm. Oct. 2011). Ming agrees that we don't know enough and would need to provide several substantial pumps to rehabilitate the streams.
5 Habitat for reintroduction, conservation translocation or supplementation Does enough well-managed and reliably protected habitat exist, either within or outside of currently protected areas that is suitable for conservation translocation, including population restoration or conservation intoduction? No / unlikely Species occurs in protected habitat (Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Nee Soon Swamp Forest), but perhaps none of the reserves in Singapore are large enough to mitigate against climate change. Habitat for reintroduction is limited as there maybe good places but the streams may be too short, too shallow (Tzi Ming Leong, pers. comm.). D. Bickford agrees that the stream habitat will be the limiting factor, so habitat is potentially available.
6 Previous reintroductions Have reintroduction or translocation attempts been made in the past for this species? No
7 Threat mitigation Are the threats facing the taxon, including any new and emerging threats not considered in the IUCN Red List, potentially reversible? Threats unlikely to be reversed in time to prevent further decline / extinction Further discussion with David Bickford and Daniel Ng determined that the threats are irreversible or potentially irreversible and if we do not do anything then it will become extinct.
8 Over-collection from the wild Is the taxon suffering from collection within its natural range, either for food, for the pet trade or for any other reason, which threatens the species’ continued persistence in the wild? No / unlikely
9 Population recovery Is the known population of this species in the wild large enough to recover naturally, without ex situ intervention if threats are mitigated? Unknown Minimum population needed to ensure survival is unknown - they have been declining in Singapore. Possibly only 50 individuals left in Singapore, David feels that there are less than 100 - so it is unknown if sufficient individuals exist for the population to recover.
10 Biological distinctiveness Does the taxon exhibit, for example, a distinctive reproductive mode, behaviour, aspect of morphology or physiology, within the Order to which it belongs (e.g. Anura, Passeriformes etc.)? No aspect of biology known to be exceptional Noted that tadpoles have an unusual way of feeding. Species has high dependency on stream health and longevity - it is dependent on good streams therefore a good indicator of climate change and health of environment. It would be important to know what parts of the streams it would use.
11 Cultural/socio-economic importance Does the taxon have a special human cultural value (e.g. as a national or regional symbol, in a historic context, featuring in traditional stories) or economic value (e.g. food, traditional medicine, tourism) within its natural range or in a wider global context? No
12 Scientific importance Is the species vital to current or planned research other than species-specific ecology/biology/conservation? (e.g. human medicine, climate change, environmental pollutants and conservation science), within the Order to which it belongs (e.g. Anura, Passeriformes etc.)? No research dependent on this species
13 Ex situ research Does conserving this species (or closely related species) in situ depend upon research that can be most easily carried out ex situ? Yes
14 Husbandry analog Do the biological and ecological attributes of this species make it suitable for developing husbandry regimes for more threatened related species? i.e. could this species be used in captivity to help to develop husbandry and breeding protocols which could be used for a similar, but more endangered species at a later stage? No
15 Captive breeding Has this species been successfully bred and/or maintained in captivity? Yes, bred to F1 Has been bred in captivity privately and in Hong Kong (Brad Wilson, pers. comm. Oct. 2011).
16 Conservation education/ecotourism potential Is the species especially diurnal, active or colourful, or is there an interesting or unusual aspect of its ecology that make it particularly suitable to be an educational ambassador for conservation of the species in the range country, either in zoos or aquariums or within ecotourism activities? Yes
17 Mandate Is there an existing conservation mandate recommending the ex situ conservation of this taxon? No
18 Range State approval If an ex situ initiative was proposed for this species, would it be supported (and approved) by the range State (either within the range State or out-of-country ex situ)? No / unlikely National Parks Board could be convinced to allow collection if the conditions of the captive institution met their approval. Noted that females are quite scarce. David doesn't feel National Parks Board would ever give permission to take 40 individuals from the wild. A person from National Parks Board said that only if the wild population was big enough to sustain taking 40 from the wild would they agree.
19 Founder specimens Are sufficient animals of the taxon available or potentially available (from wild or captive sources) to initiate an ex situ program, if one was recommended? No / unlikely Research into availability of founders needs to be prioritised.
20 Taxonomic status Has a complete taxonomic analysis of the species in the wild been carried out, to fully understand the functional unit you wish to conserve (i.e. have species limits been determined)? No Research into species validity needs to be prioritised.
21 In situ conservation activities Are any in situ conservation actions currently in place for this species? (Only required if a Red List Assessment has not been completed, or if new actions have been implemented since the last Red List Assessment. (Information from the Conservation Actions section of the Red List assessment should be reviewed and considered when answering this question.).
22 In situ research Is additional in situ research required to better understand the species, e.g. distribution, population trends, natural history etc.?
23 Action plans Does an Action Plan for the species already exist, or is one currently being developed?
24 Ex situ conservation activities Is any ex situ research or other ex situ conservation action currently in place for this species? (Information from the Conservation Actions section of the Red List assessment should be reviewed and considered when answering this question.)
25 Husbandry analog required If an ex situ rescue program is recommended for this species, would an analog species be required to develop husbandry protocols first?
26 In situ conservation activities Are additional in situ conservation actions (e.g. habitat restoration and/or protection, control of invasive species, national legislation etc.) required to help conserve this species in the wild?